Time-resolved Doppler spectroscopy

Positronium atoms created by implanting positrons into porous silica initially have ~ 1 eV kinetic energy, but subsequently cool by colliding with the inner surfaces of the porous network.  The longer spent inside the pores before being emitted to vacuum, the closer the Ps can get to thermalising with the bulk (i.e. room temperature, ~ 25 meV).

Once the positronium atoms make it out of the pores and into vacuum we can excite them using a 243 nm (UV) pulsed laser to n = 2, then ionize these with a 532~nm (green) laser. The amount of positrons resonantly ionised can be measured using SSPALS as the UV wavelength is slowly varied.  This gives us the 1s2p Doppler-width, from which we estimate the Ps energy.  The delay between implanting positrons and firing the 6 ns laser pulse was varied to try and see how the width changes when hitting the Ps cloud at different times.


In the 3D plot above we see that at earlier times the Doppler width is broader than later on.  This is because Ps atoms that spend longer inside the silica have more collisions with the pores and therefore cool down further (narrowing the distribution at later times), mixed up with the simple fact that the fastest atoms reach the laser interaction region quickest, and pass through it more quickly too!