Once the Ps atoms have been excited to a Rydberg state, their lifetime is greatly increased, and they only annihilate once they collide with the vacuum chamber. This leads to a reduced delayed fraction in our positronium SSPALS signal, since there are less gamma ray events occurring on our delayed detection time (to read more about how we detect Ps, read here). This can be seen in our data below where we excited Ps atoms to n = 11.
When atoms are subjected to a high electric field different states are separated and shifted leading to an overall broadening of the spectral line, this effect is known as Stark broadening, the mixing and shifting of the states is proportional to the strength of the electric field being applied. We are able to observe this effect by varying the voltage applied to our porous silica target from which Ps atoms are produced, and therefore changing the electric field that the Ps atoms are subjected to. As the voltage is increased, the broadening grows with the eclectic field, thus producing a signal over a wider range of infra red wavelengths, this is shown in the figure above where we plot the delayed fraction over a range of 5.6 nm, changing the voltage applied to our target from from 1 kV to 2 kV and 3 kV.